Endovascular embolization

Definition

Endovascular embolization is a medical procedure to treat abnormal blood vessels in the brain and other parts of the body. It is an alternative to open surgery.

This procedure cuts off the blood supply to a certain part of the body.

Alternative Names

Treatment - endovascular embolism; Coil embolization; Cerebral aneurysm - endovascular; Coiling - endovascular; Saccular aneurysm - endovascular; Berry aneurysm - endovascular repair; Fusiform aneurysm repair - endovascular; Aneurysm repair - endovascular

Description

You may have general anesthesia and a breathing tube. Or, you may be given medication to relax you, but not enough to put you to sleep.

A small surgical needle hole will be made in the groin area. The health care provider will use a needle to create a hole in the femoral artery, a large blood vessel.

This procedure can take several hours.

Why the Procedure Is Performed

The procedure is most often used to treat aneurysms in the brain. But it may be used for other medical conditions when open surgery is considered risky. The goal of the treatment is to prevent bleeding in the problem area and to reduce the risk that the blood vessel will break open (rupture).

Not all aneurysms need to be treated right away. Those that are very small (less than 3 mm) are less likely to break open.

Your doctor will help you decide whether it is safer to have surgery to block off the aneurysm before it can rupture.

This procedure may be used to treat:

Risks

Before the Procedure

This procedure is often performed on an emergency basis. If it is not an emergency:

After the Procedure

If there was no bleeding before the procedure, you may need to stay in the hospital for 1 - 2 days.

If bleeding occurred, your hospital stay will be longer.

Outlook (Prognosis)

How fast you recover depends on your overall health, the severity of your medical condition, and other factors.

In most cases, endovascular embolization is a successful procedure with good outcomes.

The outlook also depends on any brain damage that occurred from bleeding before, during, or after the surgery.

References

Brinjikji W, Lanzino G, Cloft HJ, Rabinstein A, Kallmes DF. Endovascular treatment of very small (3 mm or smaller) intracranial aneurysms: report of a consecutive series and a meta-analysis. Stroke. 2010;41:116-121.

Mack W, Dusick JR, Martin N, Gonzalez N. Principles of endovascular therapy. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: chap 47.

Meyers PM, Schumacher HC, Higashida RT, Barnwell SL, Craeger MA, Gupta R, et al. American Heart Association Indications for the performance of intracranial endovascular neurointerventional procedures: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention, Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Circulation. 2009;119:2235-2249.