Arthroscopy

Definition

Arthroscopy is surgery that is done using a tiny camera on the end of a tube to check for and treat joint problems.

See also:

Alternative Names

Arthroscopy - hip; Arthroscopy - wrist; Arthroscopy - ankle

Description

This procedure is typically done on the knee, hip, ankle, shoulder, elbow, or wrist.

Three different types of anesthesia (pain management) may be used for arthroscopy surgery:

The area is cleaned and a pressure band (tourniquet) may be applied to restrict blood flow. The health care provider will then make a surgical cut into the joint. Sterile fluid is passed through the joint space to expand the joint and provide a better view.

Next, a tool called an arthroscope is inserted into the area. An arthroscope consists of a tiny tube, a lens, and a light source. It allows the surgeon to look for joint damage or disease.

Images of the inside of the joint are displayed on a monitor. One or two other surgical cuts may be needed so the doctor can use other instruments to remove bits of cartilage or bone, take a tissue biopsy, or perform other minor surgery. In addition, ligament repairs can be done using the arthroscope.

Why the Procedure is Performed

A number of different injuries and diseases may cause joint pain or problems.

Arthroscopy may be needed to:

Risks

The risks from surgery are:

Other risks from this surgery include:

Outlook (Prognosis)

After the procedure, the joint will probably be stiff and sore for a few days. Ice is commonly recommended after arthroscopy to help relieve swelling and pain.

You can resume gentle activities, such as walking, immediately. However, using the joint too much may cause swelling and pain, and may increase the chance of injury. Do not restart normal activity for several days or longer.

You may need to make arrangements for work and other responsibilities. Your doctor may also recommend physical therapy.

Depending on your diagnosis, you may have other resrictions or need to do certain exercises.

You will usually have an MRI scan of the joint done before surgery is planned.

Always tell your doctor or nurse what drugs you are taking, even drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription.

You will be asked to stop taking drugs that make it harder for your blood to clot beginning 2 - 3 weeks before surgery. These drugs include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), and naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve).

Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of your surgery.

You will usually be asked not to eat or drink anything for 6 - 12 hours before the procedure. Always let your doctor know about any cold, flu, fever, herpes breakout, or other illness you may have before your surgery.

You must sign a consent form. Make arrangements for transportation from the hospital after the procedure.

References

Azar FM. General principles of arthroscopy. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier;2007:chap 47.

Miller MD, Hart J. Surgical principles. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr., Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2009:chap 2.